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Pinene, the molecule responsible for the scent of Christmas trees, is described as "unsaturated." </p>
<p>What does unsaturated mean?

Revise organic chemistry using the summary sheet below.

2nd December 3 wise men with gold symbol
Holmium is an element. What is an element?

The chemical ammonia is used in the manufacture of some fertilisers. The reaction is reversible. Find out more about this important process below.

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Holmium is an element. What is an element?

Flashcards are a great way to revise, but take time to make. Check out the ready-made flashcards for the chemical and fuel cells topic on Quizlet (sign up for free).

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Holmium is an element. What is an element?

Check your knowledge of burning hydrocarbons topic using the resources below 

2nd December 3 wise men with gold symbol
Holmium is an element. What is an element?

Need help revising gas tests? Check out the Facebook Live recording below.

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Holmium is an element. What is an element?

Check out the fantastic revision and test resources from BBC Bitesize for this topic.

Two stockings one with coal and other with pencils and a diamond ring
Holmium is an element. What is an element?

Check out one of my videos from my masterclass on electrolysis, where I covered extracting aluminium

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Holmium is an element. What is an element?

Struggling to understand the mole concept. Watch my Facebook Live recording below.

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Holmium is an element. What is an element?

Test your knowledge of the chromatography topic using the exam questions below

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Holmium is an element. What is an element?

Try this 6 mark exam question on solubility. 

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Holmium is an element. What is an element?

Have a go at this exam question. Struggling? Take a look at the help sheet.

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Holmium is an element. What is an element?

Test your knowledge of hydrocarbons using a quiz by Footprints Science

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Holmium is an element. What is an element?

Need help identifying types of chemical reactions?

Watch this Facebook Live recording.

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Holmium is an element. What is an element?

As well as predicting displacement reactions, the reactivity series allows chemists to predict if a metal will react with water or acid and the method to extract the metal from its ore.

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Holmium is an element. What is an element?

Revise formulations and practise exam questions by downloading slides below.

Two stockings one with coal and other with pencils and a diamond ring
Holmium is an element. What is an element?

Check your knowledge of the alcohol topic using the resources below 

2nd December 3 wise men with gold symbol
Holmium is an element. What is an element?

Struggling to balance equations?

Watch the video below to go through some examples.

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Holmium is an element. What is an element?

Practise drawing monomers and polymers using the worksheet below.

Two stockings one with coal and other with pencils and a diamond ring
Holmium is an element. What is an element?

Flashcards are a great way to revise, but take time to make. Check out the ready-made flashcards for the alloys topic on Quizlet (sign up for free).

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Holmium is an element. What is an element?

Given a name or a formula of a substance, you can use the periodic table to work out if atoms are metals or a non-metals and then determine the type of bonding.

Click on images to enlarge.

Given a name or a formula of a substance, you can use the periodic table to work out if atoms are metals or a non-metals and then determine the type of bonding.

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Holmium is an element. What is an element?

Need to revise covalent bonding and dot and cross diagrams? Watch my covalent bonding video from a recent masterclass.

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Holmium is an element. What is an element?

 Do you know the structure of diamond and graphite? 

Download information sheet

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Holmium is an element. What is an element?

 Need help working out the number of subatomic particles in atoms?

Watch this recording of a FB Live where I go through how to do this for atoms and ions

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Holmium is an element. What is an element?

Need help learning key definitions?

Click below to access slides to aid your revision.

Answers

Answer – Dec 01

An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down by any physical or chemical means into simpler substances. It is made up of only one type of atom. All the elements are listed on the periodic table.

Answer – Dec 02

This atom of gold has 79 protons, 79 electrons and 118 neutrons.

Answer – Dec 03

Coal, graphite and diamond are all made up of carbon atoms.

Answer – Dec 04

Carbon dioxide has covalent bonding.

Answer – Dec 05

Ionic bonding

Answer – Dec 06

In pure metals, the atoms are all the same size so the layers of atoms can slide over each other. In alloys the atoms are of different sizes this distorts the layers and makes it difficult for the layers to slide over each other.

Answer – Dec 07

 

chloroethene (vinylchloride)

Answer – Dec 08

2NaHCO₃ + H₂SO₄ Na₂SO₄ + 2H₂O + 2CO₂

Answer – Dec 09

Fermentation needs to be anaerobic (no air) because in air carbon dioxide and water are produced rather than ethanol. If the temperature is above 40 °C enzymes in yeast become denatured causing fermentation to stop.

Answer – Dec 10

A formulation is a mixture designed as a useful product. They are made by mixing the components in carefully measured quantities. Each component has a particular purpose, and the overall mixture has the desired properties.

Answer – Dec 11

A displacement reaction is where a more reactive metal displaces (replaces) a less reactive metal from a compound that contains the less reactive metal.

Answer – Dec 12

A redox reaction is a reaction in which both oxidation and reduction occur. Oxidation is where a species gains oxygen or loses electrons. Reduction is where a species loses oxygen or gains electrons.

Answer – Dec 13

A hydrocarbon is made of hydrogen and carbon atoms ONLY.

Answer – Dec 14

Pour the copper sulfate solution into an evaporating basin. Heat the copper sulfate solution to evaporate half of the water. Allow to cool and then leave to allow crystals to form.

Answer – Dec 15

At 100°C, the amount of benzoic acid dissolved in the solution is 2.24 g. At 25°C, the amount of benzoic acid that remains dissolved is 0.136 g. Therefore, the mass of solid benzoic acid deposited as the solution cools from 100°C to 25°C is 2.104 g.

Answer – Dec 16

Chromatography is a technique that separates and identifies different food colourings in sweets by allowing each colouring to move through a stationary phase at varying speeds. This separation creates distinct colour patterns,  Rf (Retention Factor) values can be calculated for each food colouring. These Rf values can be matched with known values allowing accurate identification of the specific food colourings present in the sweets.

Answer – Dec 17

1 = C, 2 =B and 3=A.

Answer – Dec 18

In electrolysis, an electric current is passed through the aluminium oxide, which breaks it down into its elements: aluminium and oxygen. This process is necessary because aluminium is more reactive than carbon. If we were to attempt to extract aluminium using carbon, carbon would react with the oxygen from the aluminium oxide, leaving us with carbon dioxide and not extracting aluminium. In contrast, metals like iron can be reduced using carbon as iron is less reactive than aluminium and so heating it with carbon is a suitable method for its extraction.

Answer – Dec 19

The three earlier stages of a life cycle assessment are raw materials, manufacture and use.

Answer – Dec 20

Bubble gas through limewater and the limewater will turn milky / cloudy / form white precipitate if CO₂ present .

Answer – Dec 21

During complete combustion, a fuel burns in an ample supply of oxygen, resulting in the formation of carbon dioxide (CO₂) and water vapour (H₂O) as the primary products. In contrast, incomplete combustion occurs when there’s insufficient oxygen, leading to the production of carbon monoxide (CO), soot (carbon particles), and water vapour (H₂O) as products. This difference in oxygen availability and the presence of carbon particles are key factors influencing the formation of different products in the two processes.

Answer – Dec 22

A simple cell can be made by connecting two different metals in
contact with an electrolyte.

Answer – Dec 23

The three essential elements are nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K).

Answer – Dec 24

Unsaturated means that the molecule contains a double carbon-carbon bond and so has two fewer hydrogens than a saturated molecule with the same number of carbon atoms.

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